Dedicated to Effective Intelligence

As part of our efforts to deliver robust, reliable and useful systems, we frequently research methods to improve the quality of our deliverers. We publish some of these research activities as white papers- a selection of which are available on our site! Covering a broad range of knowledge surrounding Astrophysics, Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Information Control.

White Paper

The Lancaster Space Gun


Knowledge 4 Strength have teamed up with Lancaster Engineering to produce the white paper ‘The Lancaster Space Gun.’ 

This white paper considers the outline feasibility of a ground-based gun that delivers sufficient muzzle velocity to its ammunition for it to reach at least low earth orbit.

White Paper

Determining the Route of Trace Elements Through Inter-connected Systems

The existence of certain chemicals within a system can provide useful indications of other potentially dangerous pollutants. For example, the proportion of Carbon-14 in the atmosphere could potentially be used
to indicate the proportion of CO2 increase due to fossil fuels and cement production. Despite such beneficial implications, the calculations used for determining Carbon-14 levels are not so clear

Within this white paper, Unusual Systems mathematically model the route of dye (acting as a trace element) as it progresses through a system of inter-connected containers, posing the question: ‘Given the respective concentration of each container within the system, can we produce a method of determining the origin of the trace element?’

Associated Papers

Unusual Systems staff have contributed and written their own research en-devours, independent of the company. Motivations range from previous paid projects, academic gain and personal interests. Both published and unpublished papers are listed below.

A Brief Survey in Graph Packing Problems

Mathematics in Research. University of Birmingham. 2019

A brief typology of graph packing and decomposition methods. This paper discusses, collates and presents some of the fundamental findings within the field such as 'The Hamilton Cycle Problem' and 'The Tree Packing Conjecture.'
Eva Summerfield
Research Assistant

The Proper Use of Ignorance

ITEC 2018 Confrence Paper. May 22, 2018

Martin Hill, John Salt

The right information must be balanced by the right ignorance to avoid overloading intelligence work. Analysts are therefore trained in mechanical simplifications - such as hatching out areas on maps - that are appropriate to particular circumstances but fail catastrophically in others. The solution is not to throw out the simplifications but to train in awareness of their limitations and the ability to adapt as required
Martin Hill
Lead Engineer

Not yet for Us: The Nascent Black Hole

arvix. February 7, 2018

Martin Hill

Attempts to re-establish the concept of a "nascent black hole" as the correct approach for modelling black holes from remote reference frames.
Martin Hill
Lead Engineer

An Evidence Based Approach to Scoping Reviews

EJISE. Cranfield University. Janruary 1, 2011

Antigo Hidalgo Landa, Istvan Szabo, Liam Le Brun, Ian Owen, Graham Fletcher and Martin Hill

An examination of one way to find papers systematically.
Martin Hill
Lead Engineer

Life and Death Decisions Using Sparse Unreliable Evidence

ECIME. 2010. September 10, 2010

Martin Hill and John Salt

An outline description paper on information management/exploitation in fighting tactical environments, particularly information challenges and mitigations in frontline military environments.
Martin Hill
Lead Engineer